Caulfield - Flight of the Earls and Plantation
Chichester was worried about the success of the Plantation
because of the quality of some of the grantees.
Following the Flight of the Earls in 1607, their lands were
declared forfeit to the Crown and were set aside for plantation.
Meanwhile all the paraphernalia connected with the Plantation
had to be worked through, beginning with the various Inquisitions
(meetings) of the Commissioners whose task it was to find
out what land was available, the names of the various balliboes
and townlands, who held them and how many acres each contained.
Sir Toby Caulfield obtained much of the best land in the
parish of Donaghmore as a servitor. Indeed he fared very
well, better than most, in Irish land. One of the Plantation
Commissioners himself, he attended the many Inquisitions
not merely in Dungannon but throughout Ulster and secured
for himself vast acres in all the escheated counties.
Among his acquisitions were many Abbey lands, of which he
took possession on the argument that because of the Suppression
of the Monasteries they were in his hands before the Flight
of the Earls and were therefore not forfeit to the Crown.
He was a special favourite of the Lord Deputy. Take
notice of him, says Chichester, writing to the Lord
Privy Seal, for he is a very worthy gentleman of good
sufficiency, to do the Kings service in war or in
peace, from whom I have had my best assistance in furthering
the Kings service.
His grant in the parish of Donaghmore is dated 20 January,
1610 and corresponds to the territory called Ballydonnelly,
formerly the territory of the ODonnellys, and contained
the following townlands, Glassmullagh, Monyshaketeney (Lisnamonaghan),
Dromhirke, Riscor, Stackernagh, Aghloske (Aughlish), Dromneferne,
Kilglasse, Creeve, Tullyallen, Killoleven, Derrikill, Cullenrawer,
Glasstroman, Mullabane, Lissogalen, Dromcor, Ballyward,
Goory, Agheantubber, Cessefoigh, in all 1000 acres, called
the Manor of Aghloske, at a rent of Stg8. Several townlands
included in the grant, are missing from the list which make
the total grant of land up to 1,680 acres.
Sir Toby built his castle and bawn on the southern bank
of the River Torrent, thus fulfilling one of the conditions
of undertakers and servitors,which states, Within
three years they must build with a strong court or bawn
about the same. The Grantee shall place upon his proportion
48 able men of 18 years of age and upwards, who had been
born in England, or in the lowland parts of Scotland, which
48 men shall be reduced into 20 separate families at least,
4 fee farmers to be settled on 120 acres, six lease holders
to have 100 acres for 21 years, and upon the remainder 8
families or more of artificers (builders), husbandmen and
cottages, their allotment to be decided by the Grantee.
Neither shall any of the above have the right to alienate
any of the land.
Among some of the other conditions the undertaker or servitor
were required to undertake were, draw their undertenants
to build their houses together; have a convenient store
of arms in their houses; take the Oath of Supremacy (belong
to the Established Church, Protestant); conform themselves
in religion; be resident upon their proportions.
While many of the servitors and undertakers were remiss
in adhering to these conditions, the same cannot be said
of Toby Caulfield.
His undertenants lived in the newly founded village of Castlecaulfield,
a true Plantation village. Chichester was worried about
the success of the Plantation because of the quality of
some of the grantees. Plain country gentlemen,
he describes them, who may promise much but give small
assurance or hope of performing what appertains to a work
of such moment.
Indeed Chichester threatened them with forfeiture if they
didnt make efforts to fulfil their conditions. Captain
Pynnar was sent to inspect the progress of the Plantation
in 1618 and 1619. He made a most favourable report concerning
the estate of Sir Toby Caulfield, as follows,
Sir Toby Caulfield hath 1,000 acres, called Ballidonnelly,
whereonto is added a fair house or Castle, the front whereof
is 80 feet in length and 28 in breadth from outside to outside,
two Cross Ends 50 feet in length and 28 in breadth; the
walls are five feet thick in the bottom, and four at the
top: very good Cellars underground, and all the windows
of hewn stone. Between the two Cross Ends there goeth a
wall which is 18 feet high and maketh a small Court within
This work, at this time is but 13 feet high and a number
of men at work for the sudden finishing of it. There is
also a stone bridge over the river which is of lime and
stone, with strong butterises for the supporting of it.
And to this is joined a good water mill for corn, all built
of lime and stone. This is at this time the fairest building
I have seen. Near unto this Bawn there is built a Town in
which are 15 English families, who are able to make 20 men
There is further reference to the building in another survey
which was carried out in 1622. The 1622 survey substantially
corroborates the earlier one, while recording some interesting
additions. He hath also built Bawne of lyme and stone,
180 foot square, and 12ft. high, 4ft thick at the bottome,
3 at the Topp, with 4 Flankers 18 foot high, battlemented;
this Bawne doth environ the Castle and sundry other buildings:
viz a faire strong Gatehouse at the entry into it, being
25 foot long and 18 broad, 2 stories and a half high, battlemented
and the gutter leaded with an Iron Gate and a strong doore
within it; a stable of 80 foot long and 15 broad of lyme
and stone, with a loft over it to hold corne; and some buildings
for servants; two Cage worke houses, each 20 foot long and
20 broad, intended for offices but as yet doe serve for
the dwelling house, the Castle being not fully finished
with the Walles.
Thus, to implement one important aspect of the Plantation
scheme was built the Castle and Bawn of Sir Toby Caulfield,
and the town that bears his name.
Courtesy of the Tyrone Times